In this, the final episode covering Chapter 9 Optimism, we explore optimism as applied to politics and institutions. A pessimistic view of people, as animals that sometimes cannot be reasoned with, would imply the initiation of force is required. But understanding people as beings of compassion and reason means we should initiate kindness and use force only ever in response to violence. Pessimism about problems - problem avoidance is something we should not only take seriously but personally as David argues in this chapter. Because if optimism was not repeatedly stamped out or required the intellectual energy to constantly defend, we would be immortal already and living among the stars.